Dr. Tali Režun published articles, business concepts and academic dissertations based on his work and experience in the past 20-years.

Dr. Tali Režun, Denis Jazbec (2021)

Solana L1 Secured W2W dChat Communication Framework, FOURim Protocol Light Paper

Whenever we speak about online security we consider it a topic important to us. Securing your digital communications should be your highest priority when going online. Blockchain has always offered the promise of enabling secure, immutable W2W communication while retaining data and identity ownership, it is by design the perfect security tool. However, it could never really take off due to early-generation blockchains’ scalability and cost constraints. To address this issue the 4thTech developed a Solana-based dChat, which leverages L1s trust to provide end-to-end encrypted immutable on-chain messaging.

Keywords: web3, 4thTech, dChat, internet, digital transformation, blockchain technology, decentralization, peer-to-peer, online trust, online security, online privacy, DLT, Solana blockchain

Background Key Points:

(1) the right to online safety should be above all and provided for all online communications; (2) blockchain protocols offered great promise but scalability, throughput and cost were always an issue; (3) Web3 projects & DAOs all use Web2 communication tools, which goes against the decentralization ethos, and; (4) immutable on-chain W2W messaging is prime to become the future of secure communication - Not Your Keys, Not Your Message!

Solutions Key Points:

(1) establishing an on-chain communication framework that is web, desktop & mobile interoperable (one message = one L1 Transaction); (2) bringing social communication to the Web3 Ecosystem; (3) E2EE secure, immutable, censorship-resistant, scalable & accessible »on-chain« messaging; (4) Web3 wallet login, no signup or personal information; (5) resistant to data mining, data tracking & identity theft; (6) W2W private, group & community on-chain messaging with an option of NFT curated chat groups; (7) data file & media sharing via decentralized storage; (8) stand-alone app or White labelled (SDK); (9) interoperable with all significant wallets, and; (1) due to heavy on-chain activity (i.e. 1 message = 1 TX), 4thTech dApps can bring significant growth in daily L1 transactions volume.

Research Article, Dr. Tali Režun, (2020)

Initial steps toward blockchain enterprise adoption

Blockchain has been acknowledged and recognised also in the mainstream enterprise sector. With its ability to improve online trust, transparency, efficiency and cut the middle man, blockchain solutions are developing at a light speed with the potential to revolutionise enterprise digital communication and collaboration. With major benefits to create, store and exchange sensitive information like electronic data and documents, blockchain can substantially change the technological landscape as we know it. This article clarifies the basic steps towards blockchain enterprise adoption and acts as a guideline using two suitable project use-cases as examples; (1) HashNet as an advanced scalable blockchain network, and; (2) 4thtech as a blockchain application suite, that leverages trust provided by the blockchain to provide secure, immutable, instant cross-border electronic data and document exchange and eDelivery.

Keywords; blockchain, enterprise, adoption, private chain, public chain, DLT, hashnet, 4thtech, digital identity, electronic data exchange, document notarisation

The landscape & Opportunity

According to PwC Time to trust Report 2020, blockchain has the potential to boost global domestic product (i.e. GDP) by 1.76 trillion dollars over the next decade and hit the mainstream by 2030.

Blockchain Technology

With major benefits to create, store and exchange sensitive information like electronic data and documents, blockchain can substantially change the technological landscape as we know it.

Blockchain Networks

Every blockchain transaction is executed by a blockchain network such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, Tolar HashNet, Polkadot and others. Every network has its own characteristics, so it all comes down with the project requirements.

Blockchain Enterprise Ecosystem

Establishing a viable ecosystem is another key requirement prior to blockchain implementation.

Private versus Public

Public blockchains allow anyone to read or write to the public charged ledger, while private Enterprise blockchains can restrict access to their network partners.

GDPR Compliance

While the data protection EU authorities have not yet concluded which blockchain approaches deliver GDPR compliance, possible solutions are already emerging.


According to the EU blockchain forum report, blockchain platforms will need to be able to communicate and share data, which is a property usually referred to as interoperability.

Blockchain Digital Identity

Trusted identities of blockchain participants are crucial to the operation success and can enable complex transactions and reduce risk.

Blockchain Electronic Data Exchange

The need for immutable, unmodifiable digital data and documents exchange is imminent. E-mail is not appropriate, non-secure and does not fulfil the task in question.

Blockchain Document Notarisation

Notarisation can be described as a fraud prevention process that enables document authenticity and guarantees that the document has not been changed in the course of a transaction between parties.

Research Article, Dr. Tali Režun, (2019)

Is Blockchain the missing internet link? Reality, Integration, Adoption and Mainstream

The internet changed the way we live, it opened the ways of unlimited communication and revolutionised access to information, but it failed greatly in regards to our personal digital freedom. Instead of providing trust, granted privacy, security, auditability, peer-to-peer communication, simplification and digital money, it evolved into a system of global intermediaries, that manipulate our private data and charge a percentage for every interaction. There is a new technology at the horizon called blockchain, that in its core excludes any intermediary’s, it brings peer-to-peer communication, online trust, security, privacy, authenticity, identity, synchronize ledger and much more. Could this be the long-awaited solution that could upgrade the internet and how it’s evolving?

Keywords: internet, digital transformation, cryptocurrency, blockchain technology, decentralisation, peer-to-peer, online trust, online security, online privacy, libra


As an answer to 2008 global financial crisis Bitcoin was created, as a decentralised, independent digital cash network, that operated above the internet, out of banks and institutional reach. Soon the innovation of its backing technology (i.e. blockchain) was discovered as it could offer permissiveness solution to online privacy, security, digital identity, authenticity, peer-to-peer transactions and much more.

Blockchain Recognition and Adoption by Constitutional Organizations

To achieve fastest worldwide adoption several challenges should be overtaken; (1) establishment of legal regulatory and governance framework that could be adopted worldwide; (2) synchronise the competing interests, and; (3) achieving infrastructure replacement or upgrade.

Adoption by Big Banks and Big Tech

It took a few years for the Big Banks and Big Tech to officially acknowledge cryptocurrencies, blockchain technology and discard the offence position. The benefits of technology are just too hard to dismiss.

The Mainstream Adoption

To achieve blockchain global scale adoption, there are still open network issues to address like transaction cost, scalability and energy consumption.


The possibility to enable access to financial instruments to over 1.7bn underbanked people is truly revolutionary. Blockchain could solve open questions in the fields of finance, insurance, notary functions, supply chain management, identity, privacy and digital rights management, IoT (i.e. internet of things), state administration, online security, seaborne cargo tracking, 4D printing, quantum computing, augmented data discovery, machine learning, autonomous driving, virtual reality and much more.

Dr. Tali Režun & 4thTech team (2017 - 2022)

4thTech Project Whitepaper

The internet changed the way we live, it opened the highway to unlimited communication and revolutionized access to information, but it failed greatly regarding our digital freedom. Instead of providing a safe environment for online communication (i.e. emailing, messaging, data exchange) that we depend on every day, the internet evolved into a system of centralized intermediaries which trade the ease of access for mass surveillance and user data mining. While the majority of users have no problems accessing legacy email, messaging, or data file-sharing platforms, the “permissioned access” issue remains. Enforced usually based on censorship misbehaviour, de-platforming cases are well known leading to various cases of access restrictions. The fact remains, that the current legacy communication platforms are designed to grant permission for every email or message that we send based on pre-approval mechanics. There is also the matter of data ownership. Did you know that the moment you attach any data file to an email attachment or share it via any “free” messaging service or data file-sharing app there is a big data ownership loss possibility? Blockchain always offered the promise of enabling permissionless, secure, non-custodial, immutable communication with uninterrupted up-time, while retaining data and identity ownership, it is by design the right tool for the job. 4thTech addressed this issue already in 2017 when the “on-chain” communication R&D started. The solution presented itself in the form of an OCC (i.e. on-chain communication) framework accompanied by a dedicated SDK (i.e. software development kit).


In the past decade, digital communication has become most relevant as digital data has become extremely valuable. Communication in the form of emailing, messaging and data file sharing forms personal and business relations. Humankind has grown a dependency on digital communication as it relies on and depends on it to be confidential, private, secure, or even intimate.

One Email/Message = One L1/L2 Transaction

The dChat W2W message exchange happens on-chain, as one short message represents one L1 transaction. As dMail is data heavier, lite encrypted JSON files are created to hold dMail metadata (i.e. subject, content & attachment location) while the link to this JSON metadata & checksum (i.e. dMail content structure SHA-256 hash) are recorded on-chain in the form of an L1 transaction. So again the core primitive “one email/message = one L1 transaction” applies.

Not Your Keys = Not Your Email/Message

Every wallet becomes an on-chain identity & message data vault, accessible/decrypted only with users' private keys!;

L1 security + Encryption + Decentralized storage = Web3 Secured W2W dMail & dChat Communication

True dMail & dChat security is achieved by utilising L1s security, encryption cocktail (i.e. AES, RSA, SHA-256, ECDH) and decentralized storage.

Research Article, Dr. Tali Režun, (2019)

Online Brand Awareness, Brand Equity and the importance of Professional Value-Added Content

This research article deals with online brand awareness, brand presence, brand trust and brand equity. The research article was constructed to explore alternatives to paid online brand promotion and to offer a different perspective to online branding. Part of the research, literary review and implementation is directly sourced from Dr Rezun doctorate dissertation “Company Generated Problem-Solving Content on Social Media (SM) and Online Brand Equity: Designing and Testing a Model for Its Effectiveness”. This research article, also emphasises the importance of professional value-added brand content in the context of brand reference and reveals the components behind the online brand awareness building process. 

Keywords: online brand awareness, brand equity, corporate identity, online brand presence, online brand exposure, brand trust, business performance


The importance of online brand awareness and professional value-added content with its positive effect on brand equity and business performance has become an exceedingly important marketing issue.


OBA (Online Brand Awareness) is a process, that combines professional value-added content, use of advanced web technologies, use of advanced SEO techniques and the use of Social Media. OBA results in brand positioning, brand exposure and online brand equity.

Brand Equity

Brand equity has been defined as a set of brand assets and liabilities that are linked to the brand's name and symbol (Verbeeten & Vijn, 2010).

Brand Concept

Brand development is a complex process involving the creation of a unique brand image which represents the product and attracts consumers’ attention. A brand needs to associated with a deeper meaning and value, that consumers can later identify with.

Professional Value-Added Content

The importance of professional content and its positive effect on brand awareness and business performance has become an exceedingly important marketing issue (Botha, Farshid, & Pitt, 2011).

Research Article, Dr. Tali Režun, (2019)

Artificial Intelligence is here! Reality, Integration, Research, and Adoption

Artificial Intelligence (i.e. AI) is already a part of our lives. It impacted the way we interact, shop, travel, work, do business and challenge our society and culture, while becoming a vital part of self-driving cars, trucks, healthcare diagnostics, IoT, stock market, surveillance, military, agriculture, advanced manufacturing, robotics, etc. Artificial Intelligence has the potential to be the next step towards a new industrial revolution and can change human evolution altogether, but with all that disruptive change, big questions and topics are emerging, that will sooner or later need to be addressed; (1) human versus machine dilemma; (2) What is intelligence?; (3) Will Artificial Intelligence enhance our life or threaten our survival?; (4) How will AI change the nature of our jobs?

Keywords: artificial intelligence, ai, internet, digital transformation, big data, singularity, machine learning, neural networks


Artificial Intelligence history goes to 1930s when the Turing machine was invented, that could, in theory, do all the calculations that humans were able to do. According to Max Little (2017), the practice started to take off later when AT&T labs invented a transistor and the microchip, and with that started an era of microcomputers.

Intelligence Defined

The definition of intelligence is controversial, some groups of psychologists have defined it as; A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience.

The Technology Behind AI

WIPO (2019), devised a framework of AI understanding, dividing AI-related technologies to three groups; (1) machine learning; (2) functional application, such as speech recognition and computer vision, and; (3) telecommunication and transportation.

Future Jobs, Adoption, and Integration

In the 1980s, Owen (1988) envisioned AI possibilities in; (1) farming, using computer-controlled robots, that could control pest, prune trees and harvest mixed crops: (2) manufacturing, where computer-controlled robots could execute dangerous and boring assembly, inspections and maintenance jobs; (3) medical care, where computers could help with diagnosis, monitor patients, manage treatment and make beds, and; (4) household work, where machines could mow the lawn, do the laundry and perform maintenance chores.


Artificial Intelligence is here! Reality, Integration, Research, and Adoption research article and overview tries to shed some light on the AI open questions. The article tried to establish, the relation between nature and machine and provided the reader's facts to draw their own conclusions. For now, one thing is clear, nature and machines cannot be equal.

DBA Manual, Dr. Tali Režun

The DBA dissertation Guidebook

A DBA (i.e. doctor of business administration) is one of the most advanced and prestigious degrees in business education. Usually, a DBA is an upgrade to an MBA (i.e. master of business administration) for individuals that need to continue their education. DBA programs provide professionals and executives, with advanced research skills and wider perspective needed to manage, lead, plan or research.

The DBA Guidebook has been created to provide potential and current DBA students overview to DBA writing process. Guidebook opens explanations to dissertations main chapters, provides writing tips and deeper understanding into methodology choices.  

Keywords: DBA, dissertation, guidebook, writing a thesis, doctor of business administration

DBA Proposal

The beginning phase of the DBA study begins with a dissertation proposal. The dissertation proposal consists of the first three chapters and APA-style references list.

DBA Chapters & Structure

DBA dissertation consists of four, sometimes five chapters, depending on the study. Chapter one presents the study foundations, chapter two covers the literature review, chapter three explores the research method and chapter four covers findings and discussion.

Chapter One

Chapter one covers the introduction and background of the problem the study is addressing. More importantly, the chapter addresses applied research, identify and solve an applied business problem and presents empirical arguments.

Chapter Two

Chapter two stands for review of the professional and academic literature where the theoretical/conceptual framework must be reported.

Chapter Three

Chapter three or research method and design provide extensive examination and justification of the study nature, research design and data collection.

Chapter Four

Chapter four is a chapter of findings presentation. In chapter four, tests, tables, variables, statistics, answers to research questions and results are presented.


The biggest challenge lies in literature organisation needed to complete literature review (e.g. citations, quotes, written existing materials for the specific topic). Literature content organisation can be done manually (i.e. photocopying the chosen segments and arranging them like a puzzle to complete the big picture), or it can be done digitally.

Doctorate of Business Administration (DBA), Tali Režun (2012 - 2018)

Company Generated Problem-Solving Content on Social Media (SM) and Online Brand Equity: Designing and Testing a Model for Its Effectiveness

Based on 15 years of online experience and research dealing with online brand positioning and advanced technologies the doctorate dissertation emerged. Doctorate dissertation (i.e. DBA) titled: “Company Generated Problem-Solving Content on Social Media (SM) and Online Brand Equity: Designing and Testing a Model for Its Effectiveness” deals with online model development using professional value-added content with a purpose to aid small and mid-sized enterprises promote their brands online. The four year research period from 2012 to 2016, followed company “Naton HR” as the main research subject using dissertation model to position its brand online. Data was collected and the model confirmed. The importance of professional content and its positive effect on brand visibility and business performance has become an exceedingly important marketing issue. To date, there has been limited empirical literature on professional “content-type” in social media (SM). However, there is consensus among researchers that content has a positive effect on brand exposure, and, in fact, results in improved company sales.

Keywords: online marketing, online brand positioning, social media, digital content, online technologies


The importance of professional content and its positive effect on brand visibility and business performance has become an exceedingly important marketing issue (e.g., Botha, Farshid & Pitt, 2011; Cheng, 2012; Kumar, et al., 2016; Schweidel & Moe, 2014)

Purpose Statement

The aim of this dissertation is to test a model developed by the researcher to aid small and mid-sized enterprises (i.e. SMEs) to promote their brands online.

Research Objectives

The research objective of this dissertation is to provide effective support for online marketing strategies for those companies that currently have an online presence or desire one.

Research Questions

Three research questions have been posed to test the model presented in this dissertation.

Research Methods

This study employs qualitative and quantitative or mixed methods.

Data Collection

Qualitative data were collected in several ways.

Significance of the Study

This study seeks to test a model that could possibly assist companies in developing a successful online marketing presence on their websites. By applying the model to their companies, marketers and marketing campaigns can better position company brands in highly competitive new social media (SM) environments.

Assumptions and Limitations

There are six assumption and limitations of this study.

Research Business Model, Dr. Tali Režun

Conceptual business effect model on the positive effect of firm generated problem solving content on social media and online brand equity

This model is a general online business model, derived from observation and extant theories which may be adopted by small and medium-sized companies, (b) the model and its underlying theory provided general guidance for online support building brand equity and online business exposure, and (c) the model offers detailed support, general guidance, and an explanation of proposed processes to SMEs companies, though other industries may take alternate approaches when applying the model.

There are few available and proven business models available about online marketing in the fast-paced, quickly changing global online business environment. Many companies lack the knowledge to adapt and to support online business development (Ha, 2005). To address the problem, a business model was developed as part of doctorate dissertation (i.e. Company Generated Problem-Solving Content on Social Media (SM) and Online Brand Equity: Designing and Testing a Model for Its Effectiveness A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment for the degree of Doctor of Business Administration) to help companies develop successful online marketing campaigns and to position their brands in existing new social media environment.

The results from testing the model showed positive results on higher brand equity and exposure and resulted in better business performance and overall recognition in the targeted region. This confirmation of the model is one of the major contributions of related study because it maps a possible path and process for other companies to follow and modify accordingly. The model is effective, is easy to use, and is suitable for use by other companies.

Keywords: content model, business online model, social media content, online brand positioning model


There are few available and proven business models available about online marketing in the fast-paced, quickly changing global online business environment.

Model Legend

Describing model shapes and what they represent.

Business Model

Graphic representation of the conceptual business effect model on the positive effect of firm generated problem-solving content on social media and online brand equity.

Research Article, Dr. Tali Režun (2018 - 2019)

Identifying key quality factors of a small hotel: Article researching Business Success Model of a High-quality Small Hotel in Ljubljana

The purpose of this research article was to construct a guidebook, identifying the key quality factors that forge a successful small high-quality hotel business model. The research reveals and identifies the key success components needed for a successful high-quality small hotel to operate.

Keywords: small hotel, small hotel quality, small hotel success factors, city hotel, boutique hotel


Hotel is often referred to as a “Home away from home” (LE, N. 2010). According to Maria, I., Madalina, T., Catalina, B., & Diana, I. (2008), tourism is a sector in which the structure of supply is extremely volatile and the solid and consistent part is the demand.

Research Subject

To gather most valuable, up to date information, the real hotel business is a part of this research article. The research subject is a new four-star hotel in the Slovenian capital Ljubljana.

Hotel Quality Definition

According to the AA Quality Standards for Hotels, there are five levels of quality ranging from One to Five Stars. To obtain a higher star rating a progressively higher quality and range of services and physical facilities should be provided across all areas with particular emphasis in six key areas.

Findings and Discussion

Upon review of the available literature and the research done at the chosen small Ljubljana hotel, key success factors were determined; (1) location; (2) room quality; (3) bed quality; (4) breakfast, and; (5) hospitality.

Conclusion and Implications

The main goal of this research article was to Identify key quality factors needed for a small city hotel to succeed. The literary review clearly established that Small hotel has specific advantages over big ones.